Geografie 2019, 124, 103-131

An instance-based scoring system for indoor landmark salience evaluation

Litao Zhu1,2,3, Hana Švedová4, Jie Shen1,2,3, Zdeněk Stachoň4, Jiafeng Shi1,2,3, Dajana Snopková4, Xiao Li1,2,3

1Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China
2Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China
3School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
4Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geography, Brno, Czechia

Received November 2018
Accepted April 2019

Navigation in a complex indoor environment can be difficult, and pedestrians may find themselves disoriented. As the featured objects of an environment, indoor landmarks play an important role in navigation. A review of the existing literature in outdoor landmark evaluation methods, however, shows that they cannot be fully applicable in any indoor environment. In this paper, an instance-based scoring system is proposed for analyzing the indicators that influence the salience of spatial objects from visual, semantic and structural aspects. An Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied to calculate landmark weights using these indicators. Two types of indoor scenes were employed as instances to verify the validity of this method, the Dongchenghui shopping mall (Nanjing, China) using a subjective questionnaire and interview method, and the headquarters of Masaryk University (Brno, Czechia) using an objective eyetracking method. Be result of the two instances showed that the proposed method was feasible.


The article was funded by the grant of the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0131600), “Dynamic mapping for risk and crises management in big data era” and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) project No. 41871371, “Indoor navigation map generalization model and methods considering the constraint of hierarchical landmarks”, and the grant of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant number LTACH-17002) Dynamic mapping methods oriented to risk and disaster management in the era of big data. Dajana Snopková was also supported by a grant of the Masaryk University No. MUNI/A/1576/2018 called “Complex research of the geographical environment of the planet Earth”.


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