Geografie 2022, 127, 1-29

It is time to get virtual: limitations of shared e-scooter mobility points, case study in Cracow (Poland)

Paweł Pistelok1ID, Daniel Štraub2ID

1Institute of Urban and Regional Development, Urban Policy Observatory, Kraków, Poland
2Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of the Regional Development, Kraków, Poland

Received August 2021
Accepted November 2021

Underpinned by the shift towards implementing solutions supporting sustainable mobility, shared e-scooter services are evergreen in many urban areas worldwide. However, their growing use leads to new challenges connected with their operation in the urban space. This article showcases instruments called mobility points, designated to define, and improve parking practices of shared e-scooters. To evaluate the potential of mobility points fieldwork was conducted into the vectorization of shared e-scooters’ operational zones and mobility points in Cracow. The study proves that the mobility points’ visual and technical organization is adequate and thought-out in ways based on functions of the areas they are placed in. However, due to insufficient cooperation between the private and public sectors that would ensure the mobility points are virtually implemented into the service operation, the mobility points’ potential to solve parking issues is low. This calls into question their role in the sustainable mobility agenda.


The research is part of the study: “Shared mobility in cities. Management practises in cities with powiat rights in respect to e-scooters” conducted under the project “Urban Policy Observatory as a foundation for creating sustainable urban policy in Poland based on evidence”, co-funded from European Funds and the state budget. The manuscript was proofread at Junique Justin Nnorom. The publication process of this paper was financed by a subsidy of the Ministry of Education.


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