Geografie 2015, 120, 188-209

Studentification in the postsocialist context: The case of Cracow and the Tri-City (Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot)

Monika Murzyn-Kupisz1, Magdalena Szmytkowska2

1Cracow University of Economics, Cracow, Poland
2The University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland

Received July 2014
Accepted April 2015


1. AGENCE NATIONALE DE L’HABITAT (2008): Realisation D’etudes sur les Politiques de Renouvellement Urbain des Villes d’Europe Centrale Illustrées par la Réhabilitation de Quartiers Existants. Raport Final sur la Ville de Cracovie en Pologne. Paris-Cracovie, typescript, 102 pp.
2. ALLINSON, J. (2006): Over-educated, over-exuberant and over here? The impact of students on cities. Planning, Practice and Research, No. 1, pp. 79–94. <>
3. BRADE, I., HERFERT, G., WIEST, K. (2009): Recent trends and future prospects of sociospatial differentiation in urban regions of Central and Eastern Europe: A lull before the storm? Cities, 26, No. 5, pp. 233–244. <>
4. BOUZAROVSKI, S. (2009): Building events in inner-city Gdańsk, Poland: exploring the socio-spatial construction of agency in built form. Environment and Planning D, 27, No. 5, pp. 840–858. <>
5. CAMERON, S., COAFFEE, J. (2005): Arts, gentrification and regeneration – from artist as pioneer to public arts. International Journal of Housing Policy, 5, No. 1, pp. 39–58. <>
6. CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE (2013): Higher education institutions and their finances in 2012. Central Statistical Office, Warsaw, 218 pp.
7. CHATTERTON, P. (1999): University students and city centres – the formation of exclusive geographies. The case of Bristol, UK. Geoforum, 30, No. 2, pp. 117–133. <>
8. CHATTERTON, P. (2010): The student city: an ongoing story of neoliberalism, gentrification, and commodification. Environment and Planning A, 42, No. 3, pp. 509–514. <>
9. CHATTERTON, P., HOLLANDS, R. (2002): Theorising urban playscapes: producing, regulating and consuming youthful nightlife city spaces. Urban Studies, 39, No. 1, pp. 95–116. <>
10. DAVIDSON, G. (2009): Carlton and the campus: the university and the gentrification of inner Melbourne 1958–75. Urban Policy and Research, 27, No. 3, pp. 253–264. <>
11. DEMBICKA, A. (2010): Funkcja akademicka jako czynnik wpływający na rozwój usług w mieście Opolu. In: Sitek, S. (ed.): Stare i Nowe Problemy Badawcze w Geografii Społeczno- Ekonomicznej. Polskie Towarzystwo Geograficzne, Sosnowiec, pp. 215–221.
12. DZIAŁEK, J., MURZYN-KUPISZ, M. (2014): Young artists and the development of artistic quarters in Polish cities. Belgeo – Belgian Journal of Geography, No. 3,
13. FINCHER, R., SHAW, K. (2011): Enacting separate social worlds: “international” and “local” students in public space in central Melbourne. Geoforum, 42, No. 5, pp. 539–549. <>
14. GACZEK, W., KACZMAREK, M., MARCINOWICZ, D. (2006): Poznański Ośrodek Akademicki. Próba Określenia Wpływu Studentów na Rozwój Miasta. Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznań, 115 pp.
15. GENTILE, M., TAMMARU, T., VAN KEMPEN, R. (2012): Heteropolitanization: social and spatial change in Central and East European Cities. Cities, 29, No. 5, pp. 291–299. <>
16. GRABKOWSKA, M. (2011): Inner-city transformations after socialism. Findings from interviews with new residents of pre-war tenement houses in Gdańsk. Bulletin of Geography Socio-Economic Series, No. 15, pp. 117–129. <>
17. GRABKOWSKA, M. (2012): Regeneration of the Post-socialist Inner City: Social Change and Bottom-up Transformations in Gdańsk. Pracownia, Gdańsk, 172 pp.
18. HAASE, A., GROSSMANN, K., STEINFÜHRER, A. (2012): Transitory urbanities: new actors of residential change in Polish and Czech inner cities. Cities, 29, No. 5, pp. 318–326. <>
19. HARRIS, R.D. (1997): The impact of the University of Portsmouth on the local economy. Urban Studies, 34, No. 4, pp. 605–626. <>
20. HUBBARD, P. (2008): Regulating the social impacts of studentification: a Loughborough case study. Environment and Planning A, 40, No. 2, pp. 323–341. <>
21. JAŻDŻEWSKA, I. (ed.) (2010): Osiedla Blokowe w Strukturze Przestrzennej Miast. XXIII Konwersatorium Wiedzy o Mieście. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź, 319 pp.
22. JARZYNA, M. (2012): Dzienna ścieżka życia studentów krakowskich uczelni wyższych. A Master Thesis written under the supervision of A. Zborowski. Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, typescript.
23. JUNES, T. (2015): Student politics in communist Poland: generations of consent and dissent. Lexington Books, Lanham-London, 328 pp.
24. KENERA J., ZBIERANEK P. (2010): Studenci wobec kultury. Jej świadomość a rzeczywiste w niej uczestnictwo. In: Michałowski, L., Rancew-Sikora, D., Bachórz, A. (eds): Miasto Nie-miasto. Refleksje o Mieście Jako Społeczno-kulturowej Hybrydzie. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk, pp. 208–227.
25. LEY, D. (2003): Artists, aestheticisation and the field of gentrification. Urban Studies, 40, No. 12, pp. 2527–2544. <>
26. MAŁECKI, J.M. (2008): A history of Krakow for everyone. Wydawnictwo Literackie, Krakow, 298 pp.
27. MARCINOWICZ, D., KACZMAREK, M. (2008): Student jako konsument. Ekonomiczne aspekty studiowania w Poznaniu. In: Markowski, T., Drzazga D. (eds): Rola Wyższych Uczelni w Rozwoju Społeczno-Gospodarczym i Przestrzennym Miast. KPZK PAN, Warszawa, pp. 162–170.
28. MARCIŃCZAK, S., MUSTERD, S., STĘPNIAK, M. (2012): Where the grass is greener: social segregation in three major Polish cities at the beginning of the 21st century. European Urban and Regional Studies, 19, No. 4, pp. 383–403. <>
29. MARCIŃCZAK, S., SAGAN, I. (2011): The socio-spatial restructuring of Łódź, Poland. Urban Studies, 48, No. 9, pp. 1789–1809. <>
30. MARKOWSKI, T., DRZAZGA, D., eds. (2008): Rola Wyższych Uczelni w Rozwoju Społeczno- Gospodarczym i Przestrzennym Miast. KPZK PAN, Warszawa, 387 pp.
31. MUNRO, M., TUROK, I., LIVINGSTON, M. (2009): Students in cities: a preliminary analysis of their patterns and effects. Environment and Planning A, 41, No. 8, pp. 1805–1825. <>
32. MURZYN, M. (2006): Kazimierz. The Central European Experience of Urban Regeneration. International Cultural Centre, Cracow, 574 pp.
33. MURZYN-KUPISZ, M. (2012): Cultural quarters as a means of enhancing the creative capacity of Polish cities? Some recent evidence from Cracow. Quaestiones Geographicae, 31, No. 4, pp. 63–76. <>
34. MURZYN-KUPISZ, M., DZIAŁEK, J. (2014): Is Krakow attractive to young members of the creative class? Urban policy implications, In: Wiktor-Mach D., Radwański P. (eds): The idea of creative city. The urban policy debate. Kocani, European Scientific Institute, Skopje, pp. 69–83.
35. NARVSELIUS, E. (2003): The higher school of trading: subsistence sources and informal economy of Krakow students. In: Arnstberg, K-O., Borén T. (eds.): Everyday economy in Russia, Poland and Latvia. Södertörn Academic Studies 16, Södertörns Högskola, Huddinge, pp. 89–107.
36. OSTROWSKI, J.K. (1992): Cracow. International Cultural Centre, Kraków, 388 pp.
37. SABRI, S., LUNDIN, A. (2009): “Studentification” is it a key factor within the residential decision-making process in Kuala Lumpur? In: South East Asian Technical Universities Consortium – 3rd SEATUC Symposium Proceedings. Johor Bahru,
38. SAGE, J., SMITH, D., HUBBARD, P. (2012): The diverse geographies of studentification: living alongside people not like us. Housing Studies, 27, No. 8, pp. 1057–1078. <>
39. SMITH, D. (2002): Patterns and processes of “studentification” in Leeds. The Regional Review, 12, No. 1, pp. 14–16.
40. SMITH, D. (2005): “Studentification”: the gentrification factory? In: Atkinson, W.R., Bridge, G. (eds): Gentrification in a Global Context. The New Urban Colonialism. Routledge, London, pp. 72–89.
41. SMITH, D. (2008): The politics of studentification and “(un)balanced” urban populations: lessons for gentrification and sustainable communities? Urban Studies, 45, No. 12, pp. 2541–2564. <>
42. SMITH, D., HOLT, L. (2007): Studentification and “apprentice” gentrifiers within Britain’s provincial towns and cities: extending the meaning of gentrification. Environment and Planning A, 39, No. 1, pp. 142–161. <>
43. STEINFÜHRER, A., HAASE, A., GRABKOWSKA, M. (2011): Households as actors I: Housing careers and housing arrangements. In: Haase, A. et al. (eds): Residential Change and Demographic Challenge. The Inner City of East Central Europe in the 21st Century. Asghate, Aldershot, pp. 185–207.
44. SÝKORA, L. (2005): Gentrification in post-communist cities. In: Atkinson, W.R., Bridge, G. (eds): Gentrification in a global context. The New Urban Colonialism. Routledge, London, pp. 90–105.
45. SZMYTKOWSKA, M. (2008): Przestrzeń Społeczna Miasta w Okresie Transformacji. Przypadek Gdyni. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Warszawa, 210 pp.
46. TALLON, A. (2010): Housing led regeneration and gentrification. In: Urban Regeneration in the UK. Routledge, Abingdon Oxon, pp. 196–221.
47. TŐLLE, A. (2008): City profile: Gdansk. Cities, 25, pp. 107–119. <>
48. UNIVERSITIES UK (2006): “Studentification”: A Guide to Opportunities, Challenges and Practice. Universities UK, London, 54 pp.
49. URZĄD MIASTA GDAŃSKA (2011): Informator o Sytuacji Społeczno-gospodarczej Gdańska za 2010. Urząd Miasta Gdańska, 240 pp.
50. URZĄD MIASTA KRAKOWA (1992): Raport o Stanie Miasta 1991. Urząd Miasta Krakow, Kraków, 55 pp.
51. URZĄD MIASTA KRAKOWA (2011): Raport o Stanie Miasta 2010. Urząd Miasta Krakow, Kraków, 288 pp.
52. VAN DEN BERG, L., RUSSO, A. (2004): The Student City: Strategic Planning for Student Communities in EU Cities. Ashgate, Aldershot, 336 pp.
53. WOLDOFF, R., DECOLA, T., LITCHFIELD, R. (2011): The aspirational creative class: urban residential preferences of college students in creative majors. City, Culture and Society, 2, No. 2, pp. 75–83. <>
54. ZBOROWSKI, A. (2005): Przemiany struktury społeczno-przestrzennej region miejskiego w okresie realnego socjalizmu i transformacji systemowej (na przykładzie Krakowa). Wyd. Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Krakow, 576 pp.
55. ZUKIN, S. (1989): Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J., 249 pp.
front cover

ISSN 1212-0014 (Print) ISSN 2571-421X (Online)